Posted in Islam & Interfaith Subjects

Seven Things That May Surprise You About Prophet Muhammad

The following has been taken from the book “The First Muslim” by Lesley Hazelton. Visit her blog on Huffington Post for more of her writings or buy her books online.

He was born an orphan

His father died without knowing he had a son, and Muhammad was farmed out to Beduin foster parents for the first five years of his life, returning to his mother in Mecca for only a year until she also died. The 6-year-old was left on the margins — an outsider within his own society. He was put to work as a camel boy on the trade caravans to Damascus, and though he eventually made his way up to become a business agent, could never take his place in the world for granted.

He married up — and for love

The widowed Khadija was 40, he was 25, and since she was his employer, it was she who proposed to him. Some scholars have assumed that the “wealthy widow” syndrome was at work here, but early accounts indicate a marriage of mutual love and respect — a monogamous one that lasted 24 years until her death. He’d mourn her until his own death 13 years later. His nine late-life marriages were mainly means of diplomatic alliance and of securing his base, as was customary for any leader of the time. It’s striking that though he’d had five children with Khadija (four daughters, and a son who died in infancy), he’d have none with any of the later wives.

His first reaction to becoming a prophet? Doubt and despair

He was terrified by the first Quranic revelation, which happened on a mountain just outside Mecca in the year 610, when he was 40. In his own reported words, the pain was so intense that he thought he was dying. Convinced that he was either delusional or possessed, since it seemed impossible that someone like him could be a prophet, his first impulse when he found himself still alive was to try to finish the job himself and leap off the mountain to his death.

He led an early form of Occupy Wall Street.

His message constituted a radical protest against the corruption and arrogance of the Meccan elite. As both a pilgrimage and trading hub, the city had combined piety and profit to become a kind of seventh-century bull market. Muhammad’s ongoing revelations demanded social and economic justice, and this provoked intense opposition from the city’s rulers (as did his outrage at the preference for sons over daughters and the ensuing practice of female infanticide). The intent was reform, but those in power saw it as a subversive call for revolution.

He was a pacifist — at first

For 12 years, he took a proto-Gandhian stance of passive resistance to organized harassment of him and his small group of followers in Mecca — “these nobodies” as his opponents called them. The Quranic revelations constantly urged him to “reply to foolish mockery with words of peace,” to “pay no attention,” and to “turn your face away” — words one sometimes wishes more of his followers heeded today. When the assaults became physical as well as verbal, he refused to fight back or to allow his followers to do so. In the year 622, the attacks culminated in a concerted attempt on his life, forcing him into exile in Medina, 200 miles to the north.

His eventual decision to take up arms in exile was highly ambivalent – the result of political pressure as he assumed political as well as spiritual leadership. In fact the first of the three battles he’d lead against Mecca began as much by miscalculation as by intent. Yet even after his home city accepted his leadership in a negotiated surrender and welcomed him back — the outsider transformed within eight years into the ultimate insider — he’d never return to live there, but would stay in Medina.

He knew how to say he was wrong

He acknowledged his own fallibility, most notably in the now infamous case of “the Satanic verses,” when he tried to mend the rift between himself and his opponents by acknowledging their totem gods as intercessors with the one supreme god. When he realized that he’d been tempted into betraying his principles and that there could be “no partners with God,” he had the courage and integrity to publicly declare his mistake.

His tragic failure came at the end

He died without designating a successor. In the absence of a son, many thought it crucial that he make his wishes unequivocally clear, but though his final illness lasted 10 days (the duration and symptoms seem to indicate bacterial meningitis), he never did so. Ironically, the prophet of unity — one god, one people — thus paved the way for the divisiveness between Sunni and Shiite that persists today.

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Posted in Islam & Interfaith Subjects

Merry Christmas

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Today is the day that all Christians, and a good chunk of the secular world too, celebrates Christmas. It’s a common misconception that Muslims reject Jesus. Muslims love Jesus, and if you don’t, you’re not Muslim. It’s as simple as that. You’re probably thinking that Muslims hate Christmas or something like that but that’s also not entirely true. Our “Christmas” is simply different than yours.

Muslims don’t believe that Jesus is the “son of God” the same way the Christian doctrine teaches it. As Muslims we believe that God enabled Mary to get pregnant while still a virgin and for Jesus to be born without a human father. God is mighty enough for that. We also believe that Jesus was given the gospel, performed miracles such as healing the sick and resurrecting the dead by the power of God and is an incredible prophet and the promised Messiah that will return at the end of time. The Muslim community is split as to whether or not Jesus was really crucified. The two main theories are that either a lookalike took his place on the cross or that the real Jesus was put on the cross but his execution was botched and he survived it by falling into what is called a swoon, which made him appear to be dead.

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There are no shortage of websites out there that will tell you that it’s idolatry to even wish Merry Christmas to your Christian friend but there are many respected scholars and other knowledgeable Muslims who beg to differ and who very much welcome Christmas as a part of the Islamic faith as long as it doesn’t contain un-Islamic practices such as eating pork, drinking alcohol, or worshiping Jesus as God for example. Sheikh Mansour Leghaei had this to say:

Definitely there is no problem from the Islamic point of view to greet people for the new year, especially replying to their greetings by saying things like ‘happy new year, or ‘wish you a blessed Christmas and prosperous new year’.   The holy Quran says: “When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return what is better than it, or (at least) return it equally.” (Surah 4, Ayah 86)

Note, that the Almighty Allah says: “When you are greeted…” which means that it does not matter who is greeting you – whether Muslim or non-Muslim.

His statement continues in part by also saying:

Therefore, it is well permissible for Danish Muslims for example, to celebrate their national new year as long as they avoid Haraam acts as mentioned above. Also, it is well permissible for them to celebrate the birth of Prophet Jesus (P) – whether in December or on some other date – in as much as it is permissible, rather, recommended to celebrate the birth of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (P). “We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers” (Surah 2, Ayah 285). As long as there is no Haraam action associated with it.

I wish Muslims residing in the West would come up with a new way of celebrating Jesus’ birth and the new year, a way which would be more Islamic, rather than merely mimicking the Christian culture.

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In a fatwa by the Grand Mufti of Egypt (a very well-respected man) also follows in the footsteps of the Sheikh by making in part the following statement:

I am nonetheless appalled by the unauthentic opinions of some self claimed scholars who equate spending time with one’s non Muslim family during Christmas and the like with shirk and polytheism! This opinion is rather a mere aberration of the true authentic teachings of Islam both in letter and spirit.

The Grand Mufti also goes on to say that it’s permissible to exchange gifts with non-Muslims during their celebrations too. It would even be encouraged to do so because showing kindness is one of the best ways of showing others the true character of Islam and inviting them to it through your actions. In yet another fatwa, the Grand Mufti goes on to say:

Exchanging congratulations with non-Muslims does not mean acknowledging their disbelief nor is it tantamount to prostrating before the cross or declaring the Lordship of the Christ (peace be upon him) as soon scholars claim. Rather, this is from among the forms of righteousness and justice that Allah Almighty loves.

The Grand Mufti and the Sheikh clearly makes it permissible to celebrate the birth of Jesus, minus the forbidden acts. Celebrating the prophets is a way of showing gratitude to God, regardless of if its Muhammad, Jesus, or others, peace by upon them all. So go ahead, send your Christian friends (and even your Muslim friends) and family their due Christmas cards and gifts, be kind to them, and thank God for the blessing that Jesus was to both the Christians and the Muslims. We can all agree that he was an amazing man, an example of kindness, charity and non-violence for the entire world.

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If you’re a Muslim and it bothers you to celebrate Christmas on December 25th, don’t worry. January 6th, January 7th and January 19th are other “official” dates used by certain faith groups to commemorate the birth of Jesus but there are also many more “unofficial” ones. Jesus wasn’t even born on December 25th anyway! According to the Bible itself, Jesus was most likely born at the end of September. But since the actual date is not known, scholars also dispute it and not all agree on the month September despite that autumn is probably the most agreed upon anyway.

The fact that the date of December 25th was taken to cover up a pagan holiday by the Catholic Church disturbs many in both the Christian and Muslim faiths, including me. This is why I personally prefer to commemorate Jesus’ birth at the end of September, following the words of the Grand Mufti when he said that the date we use to commemorate the prophets doesn’t really matter, but late September sounds logical for me as being when Jesus was really born.

But for the millions (billions maybe?) who celebrate Christmas today, either as a religious thing or a cultural thing, I’m wishing you nothing but the very best for the holiday season and the upcoming year ahead!

 

Posted in Islam & Interfaith Subjects

My Opinion on the Hadith Books

Anybody who knows even the most basic things about Islam is no stranger to the epic schism between Sunni and Shia Muslims. When it comes to Hadith collections it’s no different. There are the Sunni books and then there are the Shia books too. So what does a Universalist like me make of that or if neither a Sunni nor a Shia, or a Sushi Muslim maybe? First, I must tell you what I think of the Quran.

We have given them a scripture that is fully detailed, with knowledge, guidance, and mercy for the people who believe. (Quran 7:52)

I believe that the Quran is a complete book free from errors and contradictions. All verses are valid in their proper and respective contexts and I do not believe in the false doctrine of abrogation within verses of the Quran. This is something I get from my Zaidi influence, a school of thought that does not believe in naskh as it’s called in Arabic, along with the Quranists, Ahmadiyya and Mut’azili groups.

This is a book whose verses have been perfected. (Quran 11:1)

The Quran does not need any secondary sources. It stands perfectly on its own. If it didn’t, it wouldn’t be the Word of God. Everything has already been made clear.

We did not leave anything out of this book. (Quran 6:38)

It’s mainstream today that Muslims believe that later verses of the Quran abrogate the earlier ones, and some even go to say that the Sunnah (Hadith) abrogates the Quran! The Quran supersedes the previous ones (Torah and Gospel) but confirms their core message, in other words it would abrogate the Bible, but it does not abrogate itself! When you look at all verses in proper context, this is pretty obvious. It’s common sense.

The word of your Lord is complete, in truth and justice. Nothing shall abrogate His words. He is the Hearer, the Omniscient. (Quran 6:115)

It’s clear from the above verse that God is saying that nothing will abrogate or supersede the Quran because it is the final revelation. It sure as hell doesn’t cancel itself out!

Then we revealed to you this scripture, truthfully, confirming previous scriptures, and superseding them. (Quran 5:48)

While the doctrine of abrogation isn’t new, for example the Gospel supersedes the Torah for Christians, when read in their proper and respective context, the Old Testament doesn’t cancel itself out over time to the Jews nor does the New Testament cancel itself out over time to the Christians. Most Muslim believe that the text of the Quran is unchanging, eternal and uncreated. Why, then, would it contain abrogation at all? If all the text is eternal, then some verses have been abrogated from eternity past by other verses. In a book of divine perfection, why would one verse simultaneously have been spoken along with another one that undoes it? Abrogation is fraud. It’s an insult to God’s perfection.

This too, is a blessed Book  which We have sent down – follow it and be conscious of your Lord, so that you may receive mercy – lest you say, ‘Books were sent to two communities before us: we were not aware of what they studied’, or ‘if only the Book had been sent down to us, we would have been better guided than them.’ Now your Lord has brought you clear evidence, guidance, and mercy. Who could be more wrong then someone who rejects Allah’s Revelations and turns away from them? We shall repay those who turn away from our verses with a painful punishment. (Quran 6:155-157)

Some Muslims will accuse others who want to reform Islam of abrogating verses because they believe that practices such as slavery or polygamy which are clearly allowed in scripture but they fail to understand that interpretation is different from abrogation. Interpretation seeks to find the meaning behind a verse in either a historical or contemporary context while abrogation seeks to annul that verse. The two are very separate issues independent of each other. Interpretation can be done with or without factoring in the doctrine of abrogation. Personally, I think that everything has a proper and legitimate context hence no need to cancel one thing out for another because everything already has it’s own place.

We did not send before you any messenger, nor a prophet, without having the devil interfere in his wishes. God then nullifies what the devil has done. God perfects His revelations. God is Omniscient, Most Wise.

Now that we’re clear that the Quran is the infallible word of God and it doesn’t erroneously abrogate itself, let’s talk about the Hadith books. As a Universalist (someone who wants to embrace all of Islam and not just be confined to one sect or ideology), I believe that all Hadith books have some merit, both Sunni and Shia and otherwise but only if they are the spirit of the Quran and have a reliable chain of transmission and interpretation, which is why I generally accept Shia narrations more than Sunni narrations despite my respect for both. With that said, these narrations are only secondary to the Quran, do not replace, abrogate or supersede in any way the Quran but most importantly the Hadith is not infallible in Zaidi doctrine. It was put together by humans as a tradition of a Holy Prophet and was actually put together hundreds of years after his death.

Many passages from the Hadith contradict not only each other, but also the Quran. Each passage from the Hadith is graded differently meaning that they are not equally authentic (some aren’t at all!) like the entire Quran is 100% authentic. Now I’m not saying that all Hadith books are fraud because I’ve obviously quoted them many times of this blog! But I only quote the ones that have support from the Quran. Take for example mercy and forgiveness. They are central throughout the Quran and passages from any Hadith book that follow in with these principles would be considered right and authentic. However, many passages in those same Hadith books relate to stuff with zero support from the Quran creating doubt where they fit in with Islam considering that the Hadith is only secondary, and there are other passages which contradict the Quran completely which renders them invalid.

Will they not ponder the Qur’an? If it had been from other than Allah, they would have found many inconsistencies in it. (Quran 4:82)

The Quran is complete and fully detailed by itself. It stands alone. It doesn’t need any Hadith books to complete it. It doesn’t need any secondary, fallible and often weak sources to complete it. There are many beautiful and valid passages in all of the Hadith books but they should only enhance your Islamic faith, not supersede it. Saying that Islam is incomplete without the Hadith is an insult to God’s perfection and promise that His final revelation is complete since it is mentioned that nothing was left out of the book. Islam detests blind faith and calls us to use our ijtihad, or common sense and reasoning, also called logic and intelligence. The Quran was spoken to Muhammad directly from God through the angel Gabriel. The Hadith books on the other hand were not, they were compiled much later through secondary sources, so it’s crucially important to apply reasoning to what fits in with the Quran and what doesn’t.

And so those who were given knowledge may know that It (i.e. the Quran) is the truth from your Lord and [therefore] believe in it, and their hearts humbly submit to it. And indeed is Allah the Guide of those who have believed to a straight path. (Quran 22:54)

Reason is of utmost importance to the Muslim faith and I find it to be a tragedy that many sects try to suppress their followers from using their own independent thinking the way God has commanded us to do and that many schools of thought get rid of critical thinking completely and only follow literal interpretations of everything without giving it any second thought. The Hadith is definitely an important part of the Muslim life, but it’s only secondary and Islam is just fine without it before it came to be known as what it is today. While I’m not one of the Quran Only Muslims who outright reject the Hadith, also known as Quranists, I can’t say that the Hadith is equal to the Quran. This is what is thought in the Zaidi school, which is my primary influence when it comes to such matters:

Regarding the ahadith (reported sayings) of the prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) their authenticity is to be judged by comparing them with the principals laid down in the Holy Qur’an, and any reported sayings of the Prophet which contradict with the Qur’an in any way are invalid.

Tradition isn’t bad, but the revelation of the Quran should come before it and you should rely on your ijtihad to process it in accordance to your own beliefs within your sect of the Muslim religion. As for me, if the Quran confirms parts of the Hadith, it’s valid to me, but if passages from the Hadith aren’t supported by the Quran to come degree they aren’t supported by me either. And yes, the Quran does mention the five prayers that is confirmed by the Hadith for those who still believe that it’s of equal authority to the Quran, among many other things. On the other hand, yes the ways to properly pray found in the Hadith books do fit in with the Quranic theme of these prayers.

Modern science proves that the oldest Quran found to date could easily have been written while Muhammad was alive which confirms the longstanding belief that it indeed was put together during his lifetime. While he could neither read nor write, the Prophet was there dictating every word. Nothing was left out of this glorious book. He included all that needed to be put into it and the rest of the Hadith books weren’t part of that. Only God truly knows best, but I’m confident in saying that He’s told us what He wanted us to know in the Quran.

O you who believe, do not prohibit good things that are made lawful by God, and do not aggress; God dislikes the aggressors. (Quran 5:87)

While Islam as we know it now comes from many sources (the Scriptures, the books of the law, etc.), we should make sure that these practices fit in with what has been revealed in the one supreme source: the Quran.

 

Posted in Islam & Interfaith Subjects

Ten Causes That Remove Punishment For Sins

Shaykh ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy on him, said: The punishment for a sin committed by a believer is removed in ten ways:

  1. He repents to Allah (taubah), so Allah accepts his repentance, for the one who repents from sin is like the one who has no sin.
  2. He seeks forgiveness from Allah (istighfar), so Allah forgives him.
  3. He does good deeds that erase his sin for good deeds erase bad ones.
  4. His believing brethren pray for him or seek forgiveness for his sins during his life or death.
  5. Or they [ask Allah] to bestow on him as gift from the reward for their deeds, with which Allah benefits him.
  6. His Prophet Muhammad, عليه السلام, intercedes for him.
  7. Allah tests him with trials in this world which expiate his sin.
  8. Allah tests him in al-Barzakh (the intermediate life in the grave, between the death and the Day of Judgment) which expiates his sin.
  9. Allah tests him in the various stages of the Day of Judgment which expiates his sins.
  10. Or the Most Merciful of those who have mercy has mercy on him.

Whoever, then, is missed by these ten cannot blame anyone but himself. (Reference: Majmoo` al-Fatawa 1:45, 7:487)

Posted in Islam & Interfaith Subjects

Faith is Patience and Tolerance

Tolerance, patience or forbearance describes the ability of a person to ignore the mistakes of the people. Tolerance is a basic principle of Islam. It is a religious moral duty. Every messenger who came to spread the religion of Allah was very tolerant and patient toward people. Therefore it is very important for Muslims to be tolerant and patient as it is a part of faith as said by our beloved Holy Prophet (SAW):

 “Eemaan (faith) is patience and tolerance.”

Even in the Quran, God told us to be tolerant and patient in our life:

Those among you who are blessed with resources and wealth shall be charitable towards their relatives, the poor, and those who have immigrated for the sake of God. They shall treat them with kindness and tolerance; do you not love to attain God’s forgiveness? God is Forgiver, Most Merciful. (Quran 24:22)

In another place, God says:

You shall resort to pardon, advocate tolerance, and disregard the ignorant. (Quran 7:199)

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But how sad it is to think that how seldom we are able to forgive each other and how often we are impetuously intolerant toward one another. In one Hadith, the Prophet said the following:

Whoever suffers an injury and forgives (the person responsible), God will raise his status to a higher degree and remove one of his sins. (Tirmidhi).

The Islamic tradition teaches us that peace is achieved through tolerance, forgiveness, and responding to evil with good. This is a three-tiered approach that gives human beings the opportunity to increasing spiritual efforts. The concept of tolerance is achieved when you are dealing with your imperfect human beings fairly and justly just as Islam commands us.

O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.

This verse clearly states that diversity among human beings is just to differentiate one from the other. Otherwise all Human beings are equal in the eyes of God. Tolerance comes from our recognition of:

  • The dignity of all human beings
  • The basic equality of all human beings
  • Universal human rights
  • Fundamental freedom of thought, speech, conscience and belief

Islam emphasizes the establishment of equality and justice, both of these values cannot be established without some degree of basic tolerance. The Qur’an speaks about the basic dignity of all human beings. The Prophet spoke about the equality of all human beings, regardless of their race, color, language, ethnic background and more. Judge your own faults instead of criticizing the mistakes and faults of others. While realizing our mistakes we should ask for forgiveness to those whom he have misbehaved and also forgive those who broke our heart. Because the Prophet taught us that: “Whoever does not show mercy will not be shown mercy” (Bukhari). And we must keep in mind that however we treat others is how God will treat us in return.

May we all be tolerant and forgiving towards others.

Posted in Français, Islam & Interfaith Subjects

La promesse du prophète Muhammad aux chrétiens

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A elles deux, les communautés musulmanes et chrétiennes représentent plus de 50% de la population mondiale. Si elles s’entendaient, nous serions à mi-chemin de la paix dans le monde. D’ailleurs, nous pouvons contribuer à plus d’harmonie entre musulmans et chrétiens en faisant un simple geste : toujours évoquer des récits positifs et s’abstenir de diaboliser l’autre.

Pour ma part, je voudrais rappeler aux musulmans et aux chrétiens une promesse que le prophète Muhammad avait faite à ces derniers. Prendre connaissance de cette promesse peut avoir un énorme impact sur la conduite des musulmans à l’égard des chrétiens. Les musulmans respectent généralement les précédents établis par leur prophète et s’efforcent de les mettre en pratique dans la vie de tous les jours.

En 628, une délégation de moines du monastère Sainte-Catherine se rendit auprès du prophète pour lui demander sa protection. Celui-ci leur octroya une charte leur garantissant des droits, que je vais reprendre ci-dessous dans son intégralité. Sainte-Catherine, le monastère le plus ancien au monde, est situé au pied du Mont Sinaï en Egypte. Doté d’une immense collection de manuscrits chrétiens, la plus grande après celle du Vatican, ce site figure sur la liste du Patrimoine mondial. Ses moines sont fiers d’y abriter également la plus ancienne collection d’icônes. Sainte-Catherine renferme les trésors de l’histoire chrétienne, ils y sont en sûreté depuis 1400 ans, grâce à la protection des musulmans

La Promesse à Ste Catherine :

Ceci est un message de Muhammed ibn Abdoullah, constituant une alliance avec ceux dont la religion est le christianisme ; que nous soyons proches ou éloignés, nous sommes avec eux. Moi-même, les auxiliaires [de Médine] et mes fidèles, nous nous portons à leur défense, car les chrétiens sont mes citoyens. Et par Dieu, je résisterai contre quoi que ce soit qui les contrarie. Nulle contrainte sur eux, à aucun moment. Leurs juges ne seront point démis de leurs fonctions ni leurs moines expulsés de leurs monastères. Nul ne doit jamais détruire un édifice religieux leur appartenant ni l’endommager ni en voler quoi que ce soit pour ensuite l’apporter chez les musulmans. Quiconque en vole quoi que ce soit viole l’alliance de Dieu et désobéit à Son prophète. En vérité, les chrétiens sont mes alliés et sont assurés de mon soutien contre tout ce qui les indispose. Nul ne doit les forcer à voyager ou à se battre contre leur gré. Les musulmans doivent se battre pour eux si besoin est. Si une femme chrétienne est mariée à un musulman, ce mariage ne doit pas avoir lieu sans son approbation. Une fois mariée, nul ne doit l’empêcher d’aller prier à l’église. Leurs églises sont sous la protection des musulmans. Nul ne doit les empêcher de les réparer ou de les rénover, et le caractère sacré de leur alliance ne doit être violé en aucun cas. Nul musulman ne doit violer cette alliance jusqu’au Jour du Jugement Dernier (fin du monde).

La première et la dernière phrase de cette charte sont très importantes. Elles font revêtir à la promesse une dimension éternelle et universelle. Muhammad précise que les musulmans sont avec les chrétiens, proches ou éloignés, rendant ainsi impossible toute tentative de limiter la promesse au monastère Sainte-Catherine. Par ailleurs, en ordonnant aux musulmans d’obéir à cette charte jusqu’au jour du jugement dernier, il sape toute tentative future de révoquer ces droits. De plus, ceux-ci sont inaliénables.

Muhammad déclara tous les chrétiens comme étant ses alliés et tout mauvais traitement à leur égard comme étant une violation de l’alliance avec Dieu. Un des aspects remarquables de cette charte est qu’elle n’impose aucune condition aux chrétiens en échange de ces droits. Le fait d’être chrétien suffit. On n’exige pas d’eux qu’ils modifient leurs croyances, qu’ils paient une contrepartie ou qu’ils se soumettent à quelconque obligation. Cette charte est une déclaration des droits, sans obligations. Il ne s’agit bien évidemment pas d’une charte des droits de l’homme au sens moderne, pourtant, bien qu’elle fût écrite en 628, les droits à la propriété, à la liberté de religion, au travail et à la sécurité de la personne y sont bien défendus.

Je sais que la plupart des lecteurs se diront : « Mais où voulez-vous en venir ? »

La réponse est simple : ceux qui cherchent à semer la discorde entre musulmans et chrétiens insistent toujours sur les questions qui divisent et parlent surtout de ce qui fâche. En revanche, ceux qui veulent favoriser l’établissement de liens évoquent et mettent en valeur des histoires comme celle de la promesse de Muhammad aux chrétiens. Ainsi, on peut parvenir à inciter les musulmans à dépasser le problème de l’intolérance entre communautés et susciter de la bonne volonté chez les chrétiens, qui, au fond, craignent sans doute un peu l’islam ou certains musulmans.

Lorsque je parcours les documents islamiques, j’y trouve des exemples sans précédent de tolérance religieuse, qui vont dans le sens de l’inclusion de l’autre. Cela m’encourage à vouloir être une meilleure personne. Je pense que la capacité de rechercher le bien et de faire le bien est inhérente à tout être humain. Lorsque nous réfrénons cette prédisposition naturelle à faire le bien, nous renions en réalité notre humanité fondamentale.